Johann Sebastian Bach: Toccata und Fuge d-Moll BWV Bachs berühmtes Orgelwerk ist eines der großen Rätsel der Musikgeschichte. TOCCATA, BWV Es ist eine Ironie der Geschichte, dass ausgerechnet das bekannteste Orgelwerk von Bach bis heute in seiner Echtheit angezweifelt wird. Toccata und Fuge in d-Moll ist wohl das mit Abstand bekannteste Orgelwerk europäischer Kunstmusik. Es wird traditionell Johann Sebastian Bach zugeschrieben, auch wenn dessen Autorschaft gelegentlich angezweifelt wurde.
Johann Sebastian Bach: Toccata und Fuge d-Moll BWV 565Toccata und Fuge in d-Moll (BWV ) ist wohl das mit Abstand bekannteste Orgelwerk europäischer Kunstmusik. Es wird traditionell Johann Sebastian Bach. Johann Sebastian Bach: Toccata und Fuge d-Moll BWV - Urtextausgabe nach der Ringkschen Erstschrift - Hochzeitsmusik für Orgel Vol. 15 - Notenbuch. Johann Sebastian Bach: Toccata und Fuge d-Moll BWV Bachs berühmtes Orgelwerk ist eines der großen Rätsel der Musikgeschichte.
Bwv 565 Navigationsmenü VideoToccata and Fugue in D Minor (Best Version Ever)
Such violinistic figures are frequently encountered in Baroque music and that of Bach, both as fugue subjects and as material in non-imitative pieces.
Unusually, the answer is in the subdominant key, rather than the traditional dominant. Although technically a four-part fugue, most of the time there are only three voices, and some of the interludes are in two, or even one voice notated as two.
Although only simple triadic harmony is employed throughout the fugue, there is an unexpected C minor subject entry, and furthermore, a solo pedal statement of the subject—a unique feature for a Baroque fugue.
A multi-sectional coda follows, marked Recitativo. Although only 17 bars long, it progresses through five tempo changes.
The last bars are played Molto adagio, and the piece ends with a minor plagal cadence. These included, but were not limited to, the following, all either unique or extremely rare for organ music of the period the toccata is allegedly from:.
In the issue was explored in a book-length study by the musicologist Rolf-Dietrich Claus. In , a statistical analysis supported the validity of the authorship question concerning the fugue of BWV Several theories concerning the authorship of the work were put forward by scholars.
For example, the piece may have been created by another composer who must have been born in the beginning of the 18th century, since details of style such as triadic harmony, spread chords, and the use of solo pedal may indicate post—, or even post— idioms.
Another theory, first put forward by Williams in , suggests that BWV may have been a transcription of a lost solo violin piece. This is corroborated by the fact that the subject of the fugue, and certain passages such as bars 12—15 , are evidently inspired by string music.
Bach is known to have transcribed solo violin works for organ at least twice. Williams put this theory into practice by writing a reconstruction of the conjectured original violin work, which has been performed by violinists Jaap Schröder and Simon Standage , and published.
The violinist Andrew Manze subsequently produced his own reconstruction, also in A minor, which he has performed and recorded.
In the meantime, Williams had written a article on the authenticity of BWV ; this was followed by numerous publications by other scholars on the same topic.
Bach as Organist , a collection of essays edited by George Stauffer and Ernest May, discussed the registration Bach would have used for BWV Around the same time as Grace made comparisons with an orchestral version in his performance suggestions, Edward Elgar was producing orchestrations of two organ pieces by Bach, which did not include BWV Elgar did not particularly like the work, nor Schweitzer's glowing comments about it.
In , Leopold Stokowski recorded his orchestration of BWV with the Philadelphia Orchestra. An orchestration was performed in Carnegie Hall in , Henry Wood pseudonymously, as "Paul Klenovsky" arranged his orchestration before the end of the decade.
By the mid s, Leonidas Leonardi had published his orchestration, and Alois Melichar 's orchestration was recorded in In , Eugene Ormandy recorded his orchestration of the piece with the Philadelphia Orchestra.
Its first uses in sound film included the film Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and the film The Black Cat.
After , another approach to using BWV in film was under consideration. Oskar Fischinger had previously used Bach's Third Brandenburg Concerto to accompany abstract animations and suggested to Stokowski that his orchestral version of BWV could be used in the same way.
Later in , while in California , Stokowski and Disney discussed the idea of making a short animated film of The Sorcerer's Apprentice by Dukas for Disney Studios , the intention being to introduce classical music to a younger and broader audience.
Similar in spirit to the popular series of Silly Symphonies , the short film proved costly to produce. However, starting with the Toccata and Fugue and the Sorcerer's Apprentice, Stokowski, Disney and the music critic Deems Taylor chose other compositions to incorporate into their film project, known as "The Concert Piece.
Then the music begins to suggest other things to your imagination—oh, just masses of color, or cloud forms, or vague shadows, or geometrical objects floating in space.
Fantasia contributed significantly to the popularity of the Toccata and Fugue. The film Sunset Boulevard used BWV as a joking reference to the horror genre.
Man , in 26 episodes between and Morricone used the trumpet musical theme "La resa dei conti" "Sixty Seconds to What? Bach's Toccata. According to Miceli , "It is [ In any case, for a classically trained musician such a glaring reference to one of the most hackneyed commonplaces of Western art music—certainly the most hackneyed within Bach's output although its authorship has long been disputed —clashes with the alleged intention of paying homage to the Eisenach maestro.
Those artists lived in an epoch close to Bach, and with my music I decided to look at that kind of past. A certain uneasiness regarding the authorship of BWV had been around long before the s.
From Hilgenfeldt in , to Elgar in the s, to Basso in the late s, the extraordinary popularity of the piece seems to have taken scholars and musicians by surprise.
Of Mendelssohn's prophecy that it was something for both the erudite and the masses, only the latter part had been fulfilled.
Some scholars who analysed the composition's counterpoint felt it was substandard. Some felt the composition was too modern to have been composed by a young Bach,   or too simplistic to have been composed by a middle-aged Bach.
In a article, Peter Williams reiterated the speculations, from which he saw a way out of the conundrum, already featured in his book on Bach's organ compositions: .
The analysis of the material sources for the piece, its oldest surviving manuscripts, although insufficiently pursued according to some scholars,  was seen as too limited to give a conclusive answer to these questions.
What was available from that branch of the research could be explained in opposite ways. Bach";  "many of Kellner's keyboard pieces revealed that his style boasts pronounced galant elements A violin composition by Bach's eldest son Wilhelm Friedemann , transcribed for the organ by Ringk, was named as another possible source.
No-one had found a composer more compatible with the style of its fugue than Bach himself. Until proof of the contrary, BWV should be considered as a work by Johann Sebastian Bach.
In , Antony Davies remarked that the Toccata was void of counterpoint. Walter Emery advocated that scepticism was a necessary condition to approaching the history of Bach's organ compositions,  and Friedrich Blume saw problems with the traditional historiography of Bach's youth.
These doubts about the authorship of BWV were elaborated by Peter Williams in a article. Hypotheses proposed by Williams in that article included that BWV may have been composed after and may have been based on an earlier composition for another instrument, supposedly violin.
Williams added more stylistic problems to the ones already mentioned by Bullivant, among others the parallel octaves throughout the opening of the toccata, the true subdominant answers in the fugue, and the primitive harmonies throughout the piece, with countersubjects in the fugue frequently moving through thirds and sixths only.
All of these characteristics are either unique or extremely rare in organ music of the first half of the 18th century. In , Rolf-Dietrich Claus decided against the authenticity of BWV , mainly based on the stylistic characteristics of the piece.
At the end of the 20th century, Hans Fagius wrote:. There are, however, few organ pieces with so much spirit and drive, and why should not a genius like Bach, in youthful high spirits, have produced this unique work, which is in some respects half a century before its time and which could achieve a place as one of the most beloved compositions in all of music history?
The authorship debate has continued in the 21st century. Wolff calls it a pseudo-problem. The other hypothesis elaborated by Williams is that BWV may have been a transcription of a lost solo violin piece.
Parallel octaves and the preponderance of thirds and sixths may be explained by a transcriber's attempt to fill in harmony which, if preserved as is, would be inadequately thin on a pipe organ.
This is corroborated by the fact that the subject of the fugue, and certain passages such as bars 12—15 , are evidently inspired by string music.
Bach is known to have transcribed solo violin works for organ at least twice: the first movement of the Partita in E major for solo violin , BWV , was converted by Bach into the solo organ part of the opening movement of the cantata Wir danken dir, Gott, wir danken dir , BWV Bach also transcribed the Fugue movement of Sonata in G minor for solo violin, BWV , as the second half of Prelude and Fugue in D minor for organ, BWV This notion inspired a new theory of adaptation: the reconstruction.
Reconstructions have been applied to several other works by Bach, with variable success. In , Bernhard Billeter proposed a harpsichord toccata original,  which was deemed unlikely by Williams.
Spitta had already remarked on the similarity between a passage in BWV and one in the harpsichord Prelude BWV , Robert Marshall compares the continuation patterns and sequences of the harpsichord Toccata BWV , and the Fugue theme of the harpsichord Toccata BWV , with the same of BWV In Hermann Hesse wrote a poem about the piece, " Zu einer Toccata von Bach " On a toccata by Bach , which contributed to its fame.
Recordings of BWV that have appeared on popular music charts include Sky 's rock-inspired recording 83 on Billboard Hot , 5 on UK Singles Chart  and Vanessa-Mae 's violin recording 24 on the Billboard charts.
In the mids, Fred Mills , then trumpet player for Canadian Brass , created an adaptation for brass quintet that became a worldwide standard for brass ensembles.
References consisting of a last name and date refer to an entry in the Sources section below:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Toccata and Fugue in D minor, BWV Opening of the toccata. Part 1. Part 2. Retrieved 6 November Bach Digital. Leipzig: Bach Archive ; et al. Stokowski and the Organ.
On Music , pp. Psychology Press. The American Record Label Book. New York: Da Capo Press. Toccata D moll für Orgel von Joh.
Bach: Für Pianoforte zum Concertvortrag bearbeitet. Hamburg: D. Hyperion , , p. Johann Sebastian Bach: His Life, Art, and Work New York: Harcourt, Brace and Howe; London: Constable.
Hilgenfeldt Johann Sebastian Bach's Leben, Wirken und Werke: ein Beitrag zur Kunstgeschichte des achtzehnten Jahrhunderts.
Leipzig: Friedrich Hofmeister. Johann Sebastian Bach. Berlin: Schneider. Damit ist bereits das wesentliche melodische Material vorgestellt, aus dem sich der weitere Verlauf entwickelt.
So wird der Septakkord immer wieder zur Gliederung schnellen Passagenwerks eingesetzt, und ähnlich bildet er in arpeggierter Form die Basis für die virtuosen Figuren, in denen immer beide Hände parallel geführt werden.
Wichtiger noch ist das Element des von der Quint zum Leitton siebte Stufe absteigenden Tonleiterfragments, aus dem die meisten melodischen Vorgänge abgeleitet sind und ein Motiv, das die Töne eines Tonleitergangs mit einem gleichbleibenden, repetierten Liegetons abwechseln lässt — eine latent zweistimmige Satzweise, die in Violinliteratur häufig ist und dort als Bariolagetechnik bekannt ist.
Auch die Fuge entwickelt ihr Thema aus dieser Idee; ähnliche, latent zweistimmige Themen verwendete Bach auch in späteren Fugen, etwa in der e-Moll-Fuge des Wohltemperierten Klaviers BWV Das Thema ist zur Engführung nicht geeignet und wird konsequent auch eher locker durchgeführt: Schon die Exposition ist nur dreistimmig, auch später nehmen die Zwischenspiele einen breiten Raum ein, so dass das Schluss-Rezitativ, das wieder Elemente der Toccata aufnimmt, ganz organisch aus der Fuge hervorgeht.
Wirklich vierstimmig ist sie nur an wenigen kurzen Stellen, und auf kontrapunktische Finessen wie Augmentation oder Umkehrung , die zum Beispiel in der Fuge in c-Moll BWV auftreten, wird ganz verzichtet.
Dem gegenüber steht ein sehr ambitionierter Tonartenplan; neben einem Comes 2. Themeneinsatz auf der IV. Stufe treten auch Einsätze auf der III.
These file s are part of the Werner Icking Music Collection. Copyist Johannes Ringk Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin D-B : Mus.
Bach P 8. Editor Wilhelm Rust — Bach-Gesellschaft Ausgabe , Band 15 pp. Plate B. Editor Pierre Gouin - Contact. Editor Roland Lopes.
Editor Nels Drue Daily. ND Music Edition , Editor Miguel Angel Cardozo-Montilla. Arranger Michel Rondeau. Arranger Jakub Kowalewski. Arranger Daniel Valentine.
Ausgewählte Orgelwerke für Klavier zu vier Händen No. Plate Mainz: B. S,Toccata and Fugue in D minor, BWV (Bach, Johann Sebastian). The Toccata and Fugue in D minor, BWV , is a piece of organ music attributed to Johann Sebastian Bach. It is one of the most famous works in the organ repertoire. The attribution of the piece to Bach has been challenged since the s by a number of scholars. The debate over the authenticity of BWV , the Toccata and Fugue in D Minor, has continued for thirty years. This article summarizes and critiques key points of that debate, taking the posi- tion that J. S. Bach is not the composer. A candidate composer is presented, Cor- nelius Heinrich Dretzel of Nuremberg (–). Toccata and Fugue in D Minor, BWV , two-part musical composition for organ, probably written before , by Johann Sebastian Bach, known for its majestic sound, dramatic authority, and driving rhythm. The Toccata and Fugue in D minor, BWV , is a piece of organ music written, according to its oldest extant sources, by Johann Sebastian Bach (–). The piece opens with a toccata section, followed by a fugue that ends in a coda. In the D minor toccata and fugue, the strong and ardent spirit has finally realised the laws of form. The composition has stylistic characteristics from both schools: the stylus phantasticus Andy Borg,  and other north German characteristics are most apparent. Hilgenfeldt considers the Toccata and Fugue in F major the most accomplished of Bach's toccatas for organ. He considers none of them written before Bach's later Weimar years so closer to than to Plate A The title page of the first publication of the piece already indicated that performance on the piano Bwv 565 one or two players was possible. Problems playing these files? Fascicle 8 pp. The name "Toccata" is most probably a later addition, similar to the title of Toccata, Adagio and FugueBWVbecause in the Baroque era such Rtl Mediathek Alles Was Zählt pieces would most commonly be called simply Prelude Praeludiumetc. The disney animators were given an abstract theme to create the image to the music. InLeopold Stokowski recorded his orchestration of BWV with the Shopping Quen Orchestra. The title page of Ringk's manuscript writes Ziemlich Beste Freunde Französisch title of the work in Italian as Toccata con Fuganames Johann Sebastian Bach as the composer of the piece, and Shannara Chronicles Staffel 3 Geplant its tonality as "ex. He considers that the notes of the piece are not too difficult to play, but that an organist performing the work is primarily challenged by Interner Speicher Voll Trotz Sd Karte. Ausgewählte Orgelwerke für Klavier zu vier Händen No. An orchestration was performed in Carnegie Hall Bwv 565Henry Wood Das Ist Erst Der Anfang Stream, as "Paul Klenovsky" arranged his orchestration before the end of the decade.